Moon of Alabama Brecht quote
February 22, 2018

The Rothschild Organ And Octoputin - Projection or Envy?

The title page of this weeks Economist:


Now consider one of the earliest cartoons that used this image:

The Rothschild banking family of England, Coin’s Financial School, (1894) - bigger

At least 26% of the British Economist is owned by the Rothschild family. Lynn Forester de Rothschild and her spouse Evelyn de Rothschild are sitting on the board of the Economist Group.

Is the publishing of the Putin squid by the Rothschild organ some kind of psychological projection? Or is it envy?

The picture of Putin as meddling octopus attacking democracies is of course dumb nonsense. There is no evidence that the Russian government was in any way involved in the U.S. election. The French and the German government have repudiated claims of "Russian hacking" in their countries' elections. The one country that meddles everywhere and destroys democracies left and right is of course the United States.

The octopus in cartoons is often associated with antisemitic Nazi propaganda and therefore frowned upon. When the German Süddeutsche Zeitung depicted Facebook owner Mark Zuckerberg as an octopus which sucks up all data, the usual suspects were up in arms.

But historically the octopus cartoons were most often used to represent a country or empire.

Last year the Atlantic Sentenial wrote about The Octopus in Political Cartoons. Russia has frequently been depict as such (1904, 1937 1948, 1950, ...). Britain, France, Prussia, Germany, Austria, Japan and the U.S. were likewise caricatured as tentacled dangers. Britain's Winston Churchill appeared as a bloodsucking sea monster.

In 1904 an octopus showed the Standard Oil company entangling the White House, Congress and the U.S. people. Today there are other companies, bankers and extremely rich families who have such undue influence. We should fear and fight their meddling and not the president of a comparably benign Eurasian country.

Posted by b on February 22, 2018 at 16:16 UTC | Permalink


I thought the octopus was a clever reference to VVP’s role as head of the Polypburo.

I’ll get me coat.

Posted by: Cortes | Feb 22 2018 16:30 utc | 1

In an uninformed America, fake news organization like NYT, Wapo and Economist can peddle fake news about fake news with nary a question of its accuracy. A dangerous time for the world. MORONS R/U$

Posted by: ger | Feb 22 2018 16:40 utc | 2

"I care not what puppet is placed on the throne of England to rule the Empire, ... The man that controls Britain's money supply controls the British Empire. And I control the money supply."
Baron Nathan Mayer Rothschild

Bearing mind that the US Federal Reserve is a private consortium of Rothschild-linked banks and it was another Rothschild that basically wrote the Balfour Declaration...

“Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and not authority; still more when you superadd the tendency of the certainty of corruption by authority.” Lord Acton

Add in Zimbardo (Stanford Prison Experiment) and Milgram (Shock Experiments) revealing how the influence machine operatesand you have the schema behind what passes for crony capitalism that infests the world. The icing on the oligarchic system is Bernays-inspired propaganda.

Perfect storm.

Posted by: A P | Feb 22 2018 16:50 utc | 3

well octopi are very intelligent as i understand it.. so they got that right!

i agree with @2 ger and @3 A P.. this constant mantra to get russia is a real interesting set up if you ask me... someone hopes to make a ton of money off war.... these same people don't care about the death of others either... not pretty..

Posted by: james | Feb 22 2018 17:03 utc | 4

Sigh, nothing but racism against Russians, MSM really wants ww3 with Russia and unfortunately they will probably get it if their hatred, hysteria soar coming months, years.

As b said earlier this week, all for the click-bait.

Woman threatened online after CNN publicly confronts her on her porch for "siding with Russian trolls"

Posted by: test | Feb 22 2018 17:05 utc | 5

Russiagate is the means the USA are using to manufacture consent for war.

A war that is not based on any real cause - just the Neo cons agenda. That is what the Meuller enquiry is designed to with the cooperation of the media - to make Americans hate Russia enough for war to be on the agenda

Putin is demonised - like with Saddam Hussein and Bin Laden and Ghaddafi

It started with obama and the demonisation of Putin.

Hillary was meant to continue this - Trump (Macmasters, Haley, Tillerson and the gang) are following the plan set out by the Neo-cons.

The question is will Europe follow - the UK and France and Poland may the Baltic’s are dumb enough but I am not so sure about the rest of Europe.

Posted by: James lake | Feb 22 2018 17:22 utc | 6

Octopus ist a Symbol like any other, depicting for example methods of surveilance states. If Sueddeutsche got attacked for using nazi symbolism, this is mosty due to the strong influence of zionist groups in germany, showing off on their power. Bruce schneier likely confirms this, even he though he uses a slightly different symbol: the squid.

Posted by: golom | Feb 22 2018 17:29 utc | 7

James lake

"The question is will Europe follow - the UK and France and Poland may the Baltic’s are dumb enough but I am not so sure about the rest of Europe".

Unfortunately you are misinformed, the anti-russian hatred is probably worse in europe than in america. Remember economist is a brittish/european news magazine.

Posted by: test | Feb 22 2018 17:38 utc | 8

Who most likely resembles an octopus, and acts more likely as one, is George Soros. Have never seen his likeness mocked in any publication. It is far overdue.

Posted by: Jo Garcia | Feb 22 2018 17:40 utc | 9

This is amazing Big Lie projection by the elite. It shows their current weakness when they project their ability onto others as b clearly shows.....has private banking been reeled in since 1894 or has it grown to project more power and control?

Please remember folks that it is our social contract that needs to change rather than punish some individuals and leave finance in private hands. Have we "evolved" enough to be able to manage finance as a public utility? Like with gun (aggression) control, if we can get some adults to lead the discussion and evolution instead of the psychopaths leadership we have currently, there shouldn't be a problem.

Posted by: psychohistorian | Feb 22 2018 18:12 utc | 10

Posted by: test | Feb 22, 2018 12:38:16 PM | 8

the anti-russian hatred is probably worse in europe than in america. Remember economist is a brittish/european news magazine.

Not in whole Europe. In Southern/Mediterranean Europe for example you do not find hatred towards Russia. And how much Britain is European anyways, they call us 'continentals' after all.

Posted by: hopehely | Feb 22 2018 18:32 utc | 11

james @ 4 said:"i agree with @2 ger and @3 A P.. this constant mantra to get russia is a real interesting set up if you ask me... someone hopes to make a ton of money off war.... these same people don't care about the death of others either... not pretty.."

Couldn't have said it any better james, kudos...

Posted by: ben | Feb 22 2018 18:37 utc | 12

The picture of Putin as meddling octopus attacking democracies is of course dumb nonsense. There is no evidence that the Russian government was in any way involved in the U.S. election..."
No evidence either that the US, where electors choose between Trump and Clinton, Democrat neo-cons and republican neo-cons, is a democracy.
Perhaps The Economist is re-cycling Karl Marx's old, 1848, charge against 'that power, whose head is in Moscow and whose hand is in every cabinet in Europe' a charge that today fits the arbiter of all wannabe, whose head is in Washington. to a tee.

Posted by: bevin | Feb 22 2018 18:37 utc | 13

@ B

The link to the NYT article is broken....or more likely they have removed the article.

Good reporting as always above. Thank you.

Posted by: Skeletor | Feb 22 2018 19:17 utc | 14

"well octopi are very intelligent as i understand it.. so they got that right!" James @4

They are also very good at spraying black ink indiscriminately in order to make their escape or mask their presence.

Posted by: Anonymous | Feb 22 2018 19:44 utc | 15

hopehely 11

No. You find it in southern states like Spain, France, Majority of balkan statees, Bulgaria as youn find it in northern europe like Poland, Sweden, Holland.
I am speaking majorities here of the population, and I speak of 95% of the media.

Posted by: test | Feb 22 2018 19:48 utc | 16


I cant see any difference between southern states like Spain, France vs northern like Holland and Norway.
The media is even more hawkish than the folks also.

Posted by: test | Feb 22 2018 19:57 utc | 17

No comment needed. Enjoy.

Posted by: jo6pac | Feb 22 2018 20:15 utc | 18

This is a nice piece of the German journalist Norbert Häring about Soros:
He carefully sorted out what seems to be fact and what is gossip. Alt right people here hate this approach.

Posted by: Hausmeister | Feb 22 2018 20:26 utc | 20

The famous british weather forecast in never a past thing:
", ladies & gentelment a heavy thick mist this morning covers the Channel, thus isolating the European continent...''

Posted by: augusto | Feb 22 2018 20:59 utc | 21

Here it is in english

Posted by: mauisurfer | Feb 22 2018 21:18 utc | 22

@ mauisurfer with the english translation of the Soros and INET piece....Thanks!

Most of my undergraduate study was in macro economics which showed the myth behind the religion of private finance/property and ongoing inheritance. I was one of the folks in class that asked too many questions and would never get invited to an INET gathering but was a computer nerd by then anyway.

The point that struck me about the situation is that to overturn private finance also means dealing with the excesses of patriarchy ....sigh We are a species that has advanced amazingly so in so many ways and yet here we are with a multi-century pattern of private finance controlling the lifeblood of human commerce like a vampire. This may have made some sense in the feudal era but we are past that aren't we?

I hope we don't destroy ourselves trying to evolve.

Posted by: psychohistorian | Feb 22 2018 21:49 utc | 23

And before the Octopus there was the Hydra and its related mythology.

In one sense it's certainly projection. I imagine the text is full of falsifications and allegations offered with no facts to back them, which is what we've seen from all other media and linked governments. Clearly, Russia is seen as an easier target than China thanks to the years of Cold War brainwashing. But when we're confronted with such excrement, what's the message we see being sent? I see an elaborate Ponzi Scheme built on a slowly disintegrating foundation of lies in the process of imploding. The so-called Masters of the Universe no longer hold any Truths and must thus rely on their seemingly infinite lies broadcast via the Propaganda System. Meanwhile, The Resistance holds all the Truths and refutes the lies easily. The Resistance rapidly gains the credibility the Masters once wielded.

The Hydra in Greek Mythology is killed in several differing ways. But the most important aspect of its being is the reason for its existence: Hera raised it specifically to kill Heracles--it's a tool of the Elite made to kill one of the Elite's main challengers. Yet, it was a member of the Elite--Athena--who provides Heracles with the ultimate weapon to slay the Hydra. Yes, Truth is stranger than Fiction; and it must be recalled that Mythology always is constructed around a core of Truth.

Posted by: karlof1 | Feb 22 2018 22:21 utc | 24

@ psychohistorian | Feb 22, 2018 4:49:58 PM | 22

What? No cognitive dissonance? Look closely again! Rothschild is exactly what your "Private Finance" looks like. I would have thought you would highly approve. Are you sure you took Economics 101? or just had a bad reaction to a pizza?

Posted by: Formerly T-Bear | Feb 22 2018 22:31 utc | 25

It is interesting that the host "b", who is scrupulous about anti-semitic biases, has now to acknowledge at least tangentially that the anti-semites got some things right. The anti-semites may have gone overboard with their accusations, but as always there is a kernel of truth. The Jewish opinion-makers have no sense of moderation, or fairplay and that has always turned off anyone who thinks about these things. I myself have turned away from being a raging 110% Zionist to total indifference now.

Posted by: Ivan | Feb 23 2018 0:24 utc | 26

Whose tentacles control the world?
From the Iran Deputy FM on the nuclear deal :

The world will be plunged into a new nuclear crisis if Donald Trump continues to sabotage the Iran nuclear deal, the country’s deputy foreign minister has warned. Abbas Araghchi, a deputy foreign minister, accused Mr Trump’s administration of violating the agreement by threatening to reimpose sanctions and said Tehran could walk away from the deal if it did not begin to see economic benefits from the deal.

I don't think the deal can survive in this way, if the atmosphere of confusion continues, if companies or banks will not cooperate with Iran. We cannot stay in a deal in which there is no benefit for us," he said. “That’s a fact.” . . .here

countries that are parties to the JCPOA--
European Union
Russian Federation
United Kingdom
United States .. .The meddler

So Trump, not Putin, menaces Western democracies. Change the head on that octopus.

Posted by: Don Bacon | Feb 23 2018 1:24 utc | 27

U.S. Mainstream news television and print has become boring predicable relentless propaganda nonsense, pure hype. Half is pure hype propaganda and the other is mostly advertisement selling products like pharmaceuticals any news item is product placement, LOL. It is Frightening at the same time hard to believe that the American Public is still falling for the same shell game, evil dictator, etc. This Defraud of the American Public, relentless and diabolical misinformation mind control, and Mr. Obama and his ilk insist they will decide what is true or not, fake news or not. And they will marginalize criminalize or physically damage the outliers.

Posted by: che | Feb 23 2018 1:29 utc | 28

@24 karlof1

Mythology contains its core of truth because, I submit, events and symbols both arise from the same source, and share the same pattern.

In plain terms: we are too self-important to think we put the connections together. The connections come already made, we just ascertain them.

In useful terms: the mythologies contain patterns of existence that remain alive even if we only see the patterns from mythologies that owe their fame to past events. Whatever a story evokes, it also invokes. It can happen again because it never went away. The pattern is universal, enduring, primordial. Plus ca change...

And your Hydra story is wonderful. And hopeful :)

Posted by: Grieved | Feb 23 2018 1:44 utc | 29

Karlofi @ 24: In a way, the Hydra did kill Heracles (the mortal part of him). Heracles shot a centaur who was menacing his second wife Deianira with one of his arrows (which he had previously dipped in the Hydra's blood). The centaur told Deianira to dip a shirt into his blood (the centaur's blood, that is), falsely claiming that his blood could be used as a love potion. Some time in the future, Heracles' eye starts to wander and Deianira remembers the centaur's last words. She gives Heracles the bloodstained shirt to wear. The Hydra poison in the shirt starts killing Heracles and he cannot take it off.

Posted by: Jen | Feb 23 2018 2:03 utc | 30

It is vital to acknowledge that animus towards zionists is culturally driven rather than racially motivated. Saturday morning Hebrew classes - frequently instructed by fresh outta the IDF young israelis, has been an essential part of the indoctrination of jews into zionism. Without that it would have been impossible to develop the cohort of fervently pro-Israeli jews. Wind the clock back 5 or 6 decades and you will find that among the wider jewish population zionists were outnumbered by a mixture of secular jews who wanted integration and those orthodox jews who believed zionism to be contrary to established teaching. Not now.
However there is another major downside to the accepted indoctrinations. Spend time with a third generation arab american, italian- american or Greek-american and you will find that aside from the surname they appear just as any amerikan would. Not so for Amerikan jews, whose brainwashing has served to seperate them from the wider population.
This is particularly apparent in attitudes towards women. Over the early years of emigration to the "New World" there have been numerous instances of recent migrants from Italy Greece and the ME being involved in some dreadful activities against local women. Now, these have frequent been used by a racist media to persuade fools that the particular nationality in question is deviant, violent and will 'steal our womenfolk'. After a couple decades of local Italian-amerikans, Greek-amerikans and Arab-amerikans it all settles down into a crime rate within the usual boundaries of citizens.

That hasn't prevented race-baiting by third generation feminists, the worst example being englander Labour Party MP Sarah Champion claiming that all muslims were misogynist after a gang of 1st & 2nd generation Pakistani-englanders were convicted of grooming 'young white girls'. The link which certainly doesn't represent my view on this gives a flavour of how the englander media published racist tropes while pretending to be opposed to racism.

I mention the Champion case because one group of englanders and amerikans are always given a free pass on sexism, even though they, unlike descendants of xtian and islamic immigrants, continue with their belief in gender based oppression into all subsequent generations of amerikans.

Take a look at the primary perpetrators in the #ME TOO tweeting? Harvey Weinstein, Woody Allen, Roman Polanski to name a tiny percentage of the Hollywood "heavy Hitters" who have been accused of sexual harassment and/or rape and who happen to be Jews.
I have always held that the combination of "we are the chosen people" rhetoric combined with the "all goy women are easy" [I mean to say married goyim don't even wear a sheitel) nonsense has encouraged jews to hang on to gender based prejusices long after the societies which other migrants came from ditched such tosh.

Yet there have been no articles on the rate of Judaism amongst sex pests and rapists. Why not?

I'm not highlighting this because I reckon the world needs more racist propaganda, but because a well-researched article which considered all the issues properly could put these 'hebrew classes' that let's face it, are the judaic equivalent of wahabi Madrasa brainwashing, under pressure to reform the curriculum away the anti-=women, anti-islam - hell anti anyone/anything which isn't judaic- and into less socially divisive anti-hate speech stuff.

Looking at any of the problems across this rock in 2018 with a race-based mindset is wasteful and untrue. amerikans of all colours and creeds cheer on the destruction of the 'undeveloped' world not because of their hair or skin colour, but because they have had their minds filled with garbage ever since someone first turned on a vid tube to 'distract' them.

Posted by: Debsisdead | Feb 23 2018 2:23 utc | 31

What the Russians were and are doing is straight Agitprop with a goal of exploiting American, ideological conflicts and sowing discord. This is normal statecraft between hostile nations, but we're the hostile nation and have dragged the Russians into a game not of their choosing. If they seek to weaken our "resolve" by setting us at each others throats we may not like it, but that's what we did, and then some, in Ukraine. Sure Russia is playing dirty just like we do, but to cast it as a plot to get Trump elected? That dog won't hunt.
I bet they wish they had a Lenin they could send here in a "sealed train" LOL

Posted by: erik | Feb 23 2018 2:25 utc | 32

Posted by: Ivan | Feb 22, 2018 7:24:46 PM | 26

to acknowledge at least tangentially that the anti-semites got some things right.

What things?
I myself have turned away from being a raging 110% Zionist to total indifference now.

What happened? Moved to Israel and didn't like it there? Too quiet on Saturdays?

Posted by: hopehely | Feb 23 2018 2:51 utc | 33

Nothing highlights the debilitating weakness of the West better than its fear of Russia, a country that went from "irrelevance" to near-omnipotence in less than a decade. And that weakness is progressing with each passing day. It's everywhere. Nothing works. Nothing makes sense. Everything gets worse and worse. Trump will be impeached in 2019, and that will be the beginning of the end for the USA.

Posted by: telescope | Feb 23 2018 5:02 utc | 34

The Rothschild Organ And Octoputin - Projection or Envy?

Imo that should read...
The Roth$child Organ And Octoputin - Projection & Envy?

There are some things money can't buy, of which Trump, Putin and Xi are the most notable. The Swamp is as M.A.D. as Hell, and beyond insanity with angst and impotent rage.
There won't be a war with Russia for the simple reason that Christian Colonial NATO is too lily-livered to risk their own skins. Although, considering all the other stupid, cowardly stuff they've done, it would be hilarious watch NATO adopt Suicide Bombing as a military strategy...

Posted by: Hoarsewhisperer | Feb 23 2018 6:59 utc | 35

The tentacles of the bankster oligarchy are everywhere and into everything, their greed and perversity driven psychopathy will kill us all...

Posted by: Rich | Feb 23 2018 7:50 utc | 36

Summary of headlines listening to the DLF (Deutschlandfunk, German Radio 'news' station ) yesterday while driving :

Internationale Presseschau (International newspaper review show) :

- They read tons of Headlines and articles pushing the Syrian/Russian bloodbath meme for east ghouta. Even a hindu propaganda outlet used to hammer the message into listeners brains.

- ended with a citation of a SAUDI (!) paper which read something like '70 yrs after ww2 its time for the germans to get rid of their felt guilt about it an expand their military....

Above was followed by a longer sports section about the olympics which , who would have thought, included a lengthy discussion about the russian doping 'scandal'.....

Last but not least (i couldn't bear it anymore as i'm off tv programming for 15 yrs and stopped listening to radio programming too for quite a while) they had a 'culture' section, with the main topic of a museum canceling their event which should have shown 'russian avantgarde stuff' because there was the strong notion by experts, that it was mostly faked......

So in this very short section of daily programming for the german sheeple, there was not one section where they do not fiddle in the propaganda defined by their masters....or to say more accurate, where they openly just show their true nature of existence, pure and simple: the brainwashing of the masses by repeating the lie, over and over and over

it's more than unreal.....

Posted by: youss | Feb 23 2018 8:57 utc | 37

America left its electoral system vulnerable to manipulation. And when people rely on Twitter and social media as a source of news and information other than what your friends are having for lunch or where they are going on vacation, then they make themselves easily misled.

The border between state and private undertakings is fluid, we saw saw that under Reagan with the Iran-Contra scandal. All nations promote their own interests abroad, and this includes influencing and even manipulation elections.

In that sense, I see little scandal here, at least on the Russian side.

If there is evidence that the Trump campaign knowingly colluded, illegally transferred money or was subject to some form of blackmail due to its business dealings with Russian business entities, that is another matter and will depend on the findings of the Mueller investigation.

Posted by: ralphieboy | Feb 23 2018 9:28 utc | 38


Yeah, better to shut down Twitter and stop people debate and discuss pol. issues.
If you call tweeting pro this or that is "manipulation" well then a dictatorship is something for you.

Posted by: Anon | Feb 23 2018 14:38 utc | 39


Indeed, its the same thing over western msm, one coud call it a influence campaign for war, the liberals never stop their lust for war it seems and the people getting fooled over and over, its amazing how brainwashing works.

Posted by: Anon | Feb 23 2018 14:40 utc | 40

Reality check:

Quinnipiac poll, Feb.21 :

American voters think 76 - 18 percent, including 55 - 35 percent among Republicans, that the Russian government did try to influence the 2016 presidential election, the highest number so far for this question.

A total of 68 percent of voters are "very concerned" or "somewhat concerned" that the Russian government might try to interfere in the 2018 elections.

"When you're born you get a ticket to the freak show. When you're born in America, you get a front row seat." - George Carlin

Posted by: pantaraxia | Feb 23 2018 16:30 utc | 41

Octopi, a striking symbol with their entwining pods (see karlof1 on hydra above..) its symbolism has been mostly negative.

Decrypting and interpreting Economist Covers for the upcoming year is a a project! Here, vigilant citizen, v. good, on the 2017 predictions (Dec. 2016) so one can relate it to past events, or not.. he is right to point out the cryptic nature, :) :) -- the Economist had not a clue..

Vig Cit

The Economist 2018 cover. Sold as posters, and very popular too.

The Economist article, no time to analyse the whole thing, manages to mix up so much that …puzzlement ensues, in any case the ‘cartoon’ is in part tongue-in-cheek..

It is futile to speculate how much Russia’s efforts succeeded in altering the outcomes of votes and poisoning politics. The answer is unknowable. But the conspiracies are wrong in themselves and their extent raises worries about the vulnerabilities of Western democracies. If the West is going to protect itself against Russia and other attackers, it needs to treat Mr Mueller’s indictments as a rallying cry.

What on earth does this mean?


Greek vases

Posted by: Noirette | Feb 23 2018 16:42 utc | 42

The problem is that finance functions as the communal circulation system, just like government functions as the communal central nervous system. When monarchists lost sight of their larger social function and started to assume it was all about them, the community had to find a way to make"mob rule" work. Now we are at the Marie Antoinette moment with the financial system.
Money is a medium, like blood, or roads. Storage is fat and parking lots. We pretend to store lots of money by having the government borrow it, but since that is a poor investment, it is a Ponzi scheme.
To regulate the supply of money, the government should threaten to tax excess from the system, not borrow it. Then people will quickly find other ways to store value.
Given we all save for the same basic reasons, from raising children to retirement, if we invested in them as community assets and not just individually, in a bank account, it would create a less atomized culture and much less powerful banking system.

Posted by: John Merryman | Feb 23 2018 17:50 utc | 43

I thought the Vampire Squid was Goldman Sachs (or the FED). This seems to attribute way too much power to Putin. Since it's The Economist, it's no surprise that they're with "the program."

Posted by: Curtis | Feb 23 2018 21:32 utc | 44

Thanks for the replies regarding the Hydra and its Mythos. There are numerous spin-offs from the initial story, and I thank Jen for her contribution. I neglected to mention one of the more famous octopi book cover depictions: The Octopus, part of Frank Norris's unfinished trilogy about the corruption wrought by power politics in late 19th century California.

Posted by: karlof1 | Feb 23 2018 22:59 utc | 45

Believe polls?You got be gotta kidding!hillary was supposed be potus!95% poll thought??.ha.

Posted by: dahoit | Feb 24 2018 0:47 utc | 46

Dean Henderson's the federal reserve cartel is a history of the Eight Families who control the world’s private central banks and most of the planet’s resources.
Seems like a plausible reason behind the psychological projection hiding in the Economist's cartoon.
Miles Mathis speculates interestingly about the Octopussy in How to deconstruct a James Bond film, suggesting there is a hidden message about a split in intelligence between new and old oligarchic families.

Posted by: Peter Grafström | Feb 25 2018 1:25 utc | 47

@ Peter Grafström with the Dean Henderson link

Thanks for that. It should be required reading for all of humanity.

Posted by: psychohistorian | Feb 25 2018 3:04 utc | 48

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