Moon of Alabama Brecht quote
March 27, 2011

March 27+ Fukushima Updates

Over the last days the already very serious situation in the damaged Fukushima nuclear plant got worse. It is possible that nuclear fuel in reactor 2 resumed fission. Radioactive water seeped into the turbine buildings next to the reactors making work there nearly impossible. While external power was restored to all reactors at the plant, there is not much use for it now as the pumps it should drive are not accessible due to high radiation.

Water in turbine building of no 2 is now reported to carry 3 billion Becquerel per cubic centimeter or gram, ten million times the normal radioactivity of reactor coolant. For good reasons normal limits for food are in the range of a few hundred of Becquerel per kilo(!)gram. The radiation effect is above 1,000 milliSievert per hour. The water in turbine building no. 2 also contains elements with very short half life. Obviously the fuel rods in the reactor core are broken, partially molten and cooling water escapes from the cores. There is no other way to explain these levels of radioactivity. But it may even be possible that the molten mass of the reactor core in no. 2 has reignited fission. I currently find no other way to explain some of the elements found in the water as they have such a short half life that they should have vanished by now. Iodine-134 was found in the water at no. 2. It has a half life of only 53 minutes. [UPDATE 11:30am EST: Tepco now somewhat retracts that result saying it is "not certain" that the measurement was right. But it did confirm the 1,000 milliSievert/hour (100 rem/h).] Also found was Iodine-131 with 8 days of half life. This 16 days after the reactor was shut down. There is another data point that supports this thesis. A recent Tepco press release said about no 2:

From 10:10 am on March 26th, freshwater (with boric acid) injection was initiated. (switched from the seawater injection)

Boric acid is used to suppress neutron flow and thereby nuclear fission. There was no boric acid added to the reestablished freshwater feeds of reactor no 1 and 3.

The plant owner Tepco is behaving criminally:

Six days before the workers were exposed, a measurement of radiation levels in the basement of the turbine building for the No. 2 reactor had picked up 500 millisieverts per hour, which exceeded the maximum level of 250 millisieverts allowed for workers.

But the workers were not told about those measurements before they began laying a cable at the turbine building for the No. 3 reactor from about 10:30 a.m. on Thursday.

Two workers were exposed to radiation levels of 2 to 6 Sievert which will likely cause serious burns. Highly radioactive water from the reactor cores of no. 1, 2 and 3 filled the basements of the adjacent turbine buildings. Water as much as 1.5 meters deep was found in the no. 3 turbine building, 1 meter deep in the no. 2 building and 40 centimeters deep in no. 1. Those buildings also hold the pumps needed to restart cooling the reactors. In these condition the pumps can not be checked and restarted without probably deadly consequences for personal working on the issue. As a Japan Atomic Industry Forum report commented:

working condition in high radiation area is so bad and there is no prospect of accomplishing the work for this recovery
This leaked water has been found days ago and there have yet to be attempts made to pump it out into the condenser tanks in the turbine halls. I find that dubious. There is no point to put this water into some improvised and probably quake damaged storage now. Just dump it into the sea as far away from the coast as possible. Seawater off the plant now contains 1850 times the limit for radioactive iodine. Yesterday it was 1250 times the limit. That sounds high but isn't really a problem. The ocean is huge and dumping into it is now, unfortunately, the fastest, best and safest way to prevent the situation from getting worse.

Information flow from the Tokyo Power Company and the involved agencies is still very dodged and the reaction to new problems is still much too slow. When the roof of the number 1 building blew off, immediate measures should have been taken to prevent such in the other reactors buildings. Only days later after the roofs of number 3 and 4 blew up were measures taken to prevent such for no. 2, 5 and 6. Only days after experts publicly expected damage from seawater cooling did Tepco switch to freshwater for further cooling. It is quite likely that the seawater cooling resulted in corroding brine inside the reactor cores which then led to the recent radioactive water release. There is still no adequate central management of worker radiation exposure.

A U.S. company sent four robots to Japan to work at the plant. But these are not radiation hardened. Ten days ago Germany offered its zoo of radiation hardened remote controlled robots to the Japanese government. These were designed and are kept in stock especially for nuclear emergencies. They are capable to do various tasks even in highly radioactive surroundings where the usual robots will fail. So far Japan did not request any of these.

But it is not only Tepco and the Japanese government that are slow and clumsy here. NHK TV falsly claims:

Meanwhile at the troubled Fukushima Daiichi plant, workers continue to pump fresh water instead of seawater into the Number 1 through 4 reactors to flush out salt.

Water is only added and except for steam releases there is no controlled circling or release of the added water. You can not "flush out" salt with steam or without circling/releasing the added freshwater. NHK also still talks of "puddles" of radioactive water in the turbine buildings. But these "puddles" are up to 1.5 meter deep pools.

With the continuing management failures by the Japanese government and the plant owner Tepco and with the misinformation spread by the Japanese media I see no chance that the situation will get under control any time soon.

Additional resources:
All Things Nuclear - blog by the Union of Concerned Scientists
Atomic power review - blog
Arms Control Wonk - blog
Brave New Climate - pro nuclear blog
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Digital Globe Sat Pictures
IAEA Newscenter
NISA Japan's Nuclear Regulator
Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (regular updates)
Japanese government press releases in English
Tepco press releases in English
Kyodo News Agency
Asahi Shimbun leading Japanese newspaper in English
NHK World TV - Live stream
Status reports in German for the German Federal Government by the GfR

Posted by b on March 27, 2011 at 6:03 UTC | Permalink

Comments

Whoa Nellie -- Bernhard when did you go back on the air? Greetings from Canada (where I moved at the very tail end of 2007).

Thanks for the detailed updates on Fukushima. Here is our thread at FS on same topic

The Three Mile Island Line

also

Nuclear Power: A Really Bad Idea

I am rather delighted to see MoA up and running again. More later...

Posted by: DeAnander | Mar 27 2011 6:19 utc | 1

Thank for the updates "b", it is very hard to get hard information summed up well on this issue. Great job you are doing.

Posted by: Joseph | Mar 27 2011 10:59 utc | 2

They've been busy in the last hour correcting mistakes made in the reporting of data. While no doubt that water content reflect compromised reactor, the ten million times is apparently not correct. (that probably suggest no current or after shutdown fission) The Tepco staff this morning were in fact showing doubts about the values as they reported to the largely inexpert press, turns out their doubts were confirmed.

There are two types of "puddles" the so called puddles span the floor of particular area of the turbine rm. The meter deep stuff is in the electrical sections of the turbine rooms and are separate and apart from the high concentrated "puddles". However there's more water below.

This is too technical for me to explain, but despite the incredibly dire situation, some of the reported items are not correct partly due to initial misinformation.

Posted by: YY | Mar 27 2011 12:28 utc | 3

@YY - While no doubt that water content reflect compromised reactor, the ten million times is apparently not correct.

Kyodo News Agency and NHK are still reporting that in their latest update and Tepco has not denied it.

I do not trust Tepco anymore. They still report no. 4 "with sustained damage around floor 5" when in fact any picture shows a lot more damage starting at the 1st floor. During this incident They held back on bad news in several cases.

Wikipedia: "A puddle is a small accumulation of liquid, usually water, on a surface." Tepco is itself using the word puddle, but a significant amount of 1.5 meter deep standing water isn't a puddle anymore.

Posted by: b | Mar 27 2011 13:01 utc | 4

I think you miss my point. There really is no "objective" information coming out of the facility other than what Tepco reports. So one can choose to believe only the worst news and ignore corrections, however that means one believes Tepco at certain times.

You are not unique in distrusting Tepco, however there is no other source of information of current situation except what is speculated by people looking at satellite information and off site observations.

Actually we're seeing reports from a battle zone and sometimes the reports are wrong. Certain things may be hidden, but this ten million times deal actually proves that they are beyond thinking about spinning and parts of the massive effort are beyond coherent thought.

There are two (yesterday), nuclear safety agency staff at Fukushima which is crawling with hundreds of Tepco and subcontractors (the majority). The government agency is proving itself to be totally useless although you will see them in the news. So there is no information available that is not dependent upon Tepco from the site. And there is limitation to that information as people who may have enough expertise and experience and can find their way around a dark nuclear facility with a flashlight will soon be too sick to make regular visits.

The meter deep stuff are not the puddles that are being talked about. At least not in the turbine rooms.

I do get the feeling that Tepco is well aware of what level of flooding they are inducing in various parts of the facility as they inject water without having any working water exits.


Posted by: YY | Mar 27 2011 13:28 utc | 5

So one can choose to believe only the worst news and ignore corrections

What corrections? Please point me to one.

The meter deep stuff are not the puddles that are being talked about. At least not in the turbine rooms.

Well, but that is exactly what the news sources based on Tepco are saying. If those puddles are different, please explain how/why.

Posted by: b | Mar 27 2011 14:05 utc | 6

There is a lot of confusion. Tepco now says the previously reported readings of the water in number 2 have been wrong (including doubts about the Iodine-134 measurements). They have not provided a rationale why those measurements should have been off.

On the contaminated workers, Tepco reports they received between 173 and 180 mSv, and the IAEA says "the level of local exposure to the workers legs was estimated to be between 2 and 6 sieverts". You can see where Tepco's disgusting attempt to blame it on the workers ignoring their meters is coming from.. (IIRC they also now admitted having had knowledge on the contaminated water but failed to communicate it to the workers).

Also found was Iodine 131 with 8 days of half life. This 16 days after the reactor was shut down.
While this can be an indication for recriticality, 8 days half time means 25% is still left after 16 days.

Posted by: Lex | Mar 27 2011 14:44 utc | 7

Wait, What?

Tokyo Electric Power Co. said its analysis of some of the radioactive substances in the water at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi No. 2 reactor’s turbine building was wrong and the company will reanalyze the water.

The reading of 2.9 billion becquerels per cubic centimeter of iodine-134, one of the substances found in the water, may have been wrong, said Naoki Tsunoda, a spokesman at the Tokyo- based utility. The radiation level of more than 1,000 millisieverts per hour at the building probably won’t change, he said.

Posted by: Lex | Mar 27 2011 14:58 utc | 8

All this kinda begs the question..How long do they wait until they bury this crap and move towards the Chernobyl solution?

I for one, hope they're headed towards a Prometheus moment for the industry.

Posted by: Ben | Mar 27 2011 15:14 utc | 9

@Lex While this can be an indication for recriticality, 8 days half time means 25% is still left after 16 days.

Correct, still a bit of concern. One would need the complete nucleotide values of the probe they took to be sure. Tepco of course has that but doesn't publish it. And Tepco used boron acid on no 2. Why?

---

Remember back on March 16:

Prime Minister Naoto Kan belatedly set up an ad hoc joint headquarters for the government and TEPCO on March 15, four days after the killer earthquake and tsunami that devastated a wide area along the Pacific Coast in northeastern and eastern Japan, leaving at least 3,700 people dead and about 22,000 missing.
[...]
Kan held a meeting at the newly established liaison office at TEPCO's head office early on the morning of March 15 as he pressured TEPCO executives to take responsibility for bringing the nuclear crisis under control.

''You are the only ones (who can deal with the situation). There will be no pullout (from the nuclear plant). Please be prepared, '' he told TEPCO officials.

The effort represents a measure by the Kan government to virtually bring the private utility company under government control to deal with the emergencies at the Fukushima nuclear plant.

Kan is said to have become a bit "unfriendly" during those meetings.

We now learn about Tepco's response to that: TEPCO president fell sick amid troubles at its nuke plant

TOKYO, March 27, Kyodo

Masataka Shimizu, president of Tokyo Electric Power Co., which operates the crisis-hit Fukushima nuclear plant, fell sick March 16 and took some days off from the liaison office between the government and the utility firm, TEPCO officials said Sunday.

While Shimizu was away from the office set up at the firm's headquarters, he collected information and issued instructions from a different room of the headquarters building to address the troubles at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station hit by the March 11 quake and subsequent tsunami, the officials said. He has already recovered and come back to work at the liaison office, they said.

A TEPCO spokesperson declined to elaborate on his health condition, but said he did not fall over or need to be hooked up to an intravenous drip.

He was just pissed. How can the government dare to tell his company what to do ...

Posted by: b | Mar 27 2011 15:14 utc | 10

b @10

he collected information and issued instructions from a different room of the headquarters building

for an old fashioned type like me, this is high treason

Posted by: claudio | Mar 27 2011 16:43 utc | 11

The current Japanese government may being put in the sights to be the fall guy by bureacrats and corporations who prefer dealing with the LDP. Essentially the government appears to have been relegated to the role of media liason and therefore ends up looking like idjits when they get lied to by tepco.

Doubtless those with an obsessive interest in all the media reports have found an explanation for the alleged mis-reading but the only one I can find in my fishwrap is that the reading was so high the person taking it decided discretion was the better part of valour and bolted rather than stick around to make sure he got fried getting a second reading.

In other words TEPCO & their mates in the nuclear industry have no real grounds for saying it is an incorrect reading other than the fact it wasn't supported by a second sample.

It is likely that readings vary greatly throughout the area especially if there is a crack in the containment. Really hot water will drip out with a very high reading then become diluted by larger bodies of less contaminated water.

We discussed the problem of there being nowhere for the seawater coolant to go to nearly two weeks ago. If we could see that half a world away with bugger all access to facts, what the fuck were the engineers on the site doing?

"There was an old lady who swallowed a fly, I dunno why she swallowed that fly, maybe she'll die"

Greenpeace have announced their intent to begin independent testing around the facility, but since the major green groups got hi-jacked last decade who knows whether their stuff will be accurate, especially given that they won't be let into the actual plant.

Posted by: Debs is dead | Mar 27 2011 19:07 utc | 12

What is IAEA role, I have not heard much from the organisation. Is anyone from the IAEA at the Fukushima nuclear plant? Or is their job just to hassle N Korea and Iran?

Posted by: hans | Mar 27 2011 19:30 utc | 13

IAEA will probably issue an report months from now.

Like in 2007, after a similar but lesser incidence:

Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

IAEA Inspections

The International Atomic Energy Agency offered to inspect the plant, which was initially declined. The governor of Niigata prefecture then sent a petition to Shinzo Abe. On Sunday, July 22, the NISA announced that it would allow inspectors from the United Nations to review the damage.[13]

A team from the IAEA carried out a four day inspection, as investigations by Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) continued.[14] The team of the IAEA confirmed that the plant had "shut down safely" and that "damage appears less than expected."[15] On August 19, the IAEA reported that, for safety-related and nuclear components, "no visible significant damage has been found" although "nonsafety related structures, systems and components were affected by significant damage".[16]

Posted by: a swedish kind of death | Mar 27 2011 21:17 utc | 14

It's now clear that any new nuclear energy program in Germany is politically unrealistic. It's also fairly clear that the only possible sustainable alternative is something like the Desertec initiative: solar thermal power in the trans-Mediterranean desert, transmitted to Europe by high-voltage DC cabling. Other possible sources of carbon-free energy are either hopelessly expensive (solar photovoltaics, carbon capture), or cannot be scaled up to replace more than a small fraction of fossil fuel use (wind, tide, hydro, biofuels).

What's interesting is the geopolitics of Europe's need for solar thermal energy in deserts. I don't think solar thermal can work on a neo-colonial model like the oil industry, where foreign companies can just buy off the local ruler to obtain drilling and pipeline rights. Building and running solar thermal plants will require very long-term investment, large skilled workforces who will have considerable bargaining power, and agreements with governments that are backed by genuine popular mandates. On this basis I'd expect to see the EU gradually draw closer to the post-revolutionary governments of Iran, Tunisia and Egypt, and to distance itself from US policies and from US-backed dictatorships.

Posted by: pmr9 | Mar 27 2011 23:10 utc | 15

http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/13572861
Quite good commentary by someone who's familiar with the technology.
And it has English translation.

Posted by: YY | Mar 28 2011 0:21 utc | 16

Status Update:

TEPCO took the "10 million times of normal" measurement for Iodine 134 back and now claims it was "only" 100,000 times of normal. The general radiation level of 1,000+ mSv in hall 2 was confirmed but may be too low. The measurement "exceeded the upper limit of the gauge.".

The results of measurements at various times have now been published (pdf). While the levels of some elements have been wrong (I-134) or decreased (Tc-99m) over time, levels of various Caesium and Barium variants have significantly (50%) increased from the 26th to the 27th of March.

The new data does NOT change the qualitative analysis above.

The core has melted and water from direct contact with melted fuel rods is pooled in the turbine hall. This obvious fact has now also been confirmed by Japanese government.

The nucleotid composition still points to recent nuclear fission and water with boric acid, needed to supress fission, is still added to the no 2 reactor according to TEPCO and the nuclear regulator NISA.

Radioactive Water in the turbine halls is supposed to be pumped into the condensator hotwell vessels but at least those in no 2 and 3 are already full from earlier normal operation and need to be emptied (whereto?) first.

Currently regular firefighting pumps are used to push water into the reactor vessels. These are supposed to be changed to temporary electricity driven pumps to prevent exposure when refueling the firefighting pumps. According to the most recent TEPCO status report this has been partly achieved for no 2.

Current pictures show white smoke/steam from all four damaged reactor blocks with quite a lot coming from no 3.

4 minutes of fresh detailed helicopter footage of the Daiichi site. The place is trashed.

New raw Tsunami footage 5 min

Posted by: b | Mar 28 2011 8:10 utc | 17

Have you seen this analysis?

Posted by: Semantics | Mar 28 2011 8:52 utc | 18

TEPCO just announced it found highly radiating water in a trench OUTSIDE the no 1, 2 and 3 turbine buildings - 1,000+ mSv - not nice ...

Adding:
The trenches are some some 16 meter deep and for big pipes that connect each turbine building with the area next to the sea where the emergency generator stuff and various other infrastructure was standing before the tsunami washed them away. These trenches have run full of contaminated water and in one shaft the water is only 10 centimeter below the surface. Any overflow would go into the sea. The 1,000 milliSievert/hour were measured at the no 2 trench at the water surface. Atmospheric radiation near the trench opening is above 100 milliSievert per hour - the max aggregate dose for workers.

While the trench should be isolated with rubber seals from the turbine building these seem to have given away.

This occurring of high radiation outside the "controlled" and enclosed area might lead to a formal upgrade of the accident to level 6 (Chernobyl was level 7).

Posted by: b | Mar 28 2011 8:59 utc | 19

world is shocked with the Earthquake & tsunami in Japan. Now Japan is suffering with radiation threat. World countries are well known about the threat from the Nuclear Power Plants.Every Country should not build Nuclear power plants. They should search for other alternatives for power generation.

Posted by: Prasad | Mar 28 2011 9:33 utc | 20

I agree, Prasad, including Iran. Not that I in any way support the West's propaganda about a Nuclear conflict if Iran gets Nuclear Power, but let's face it, if Iran was building that Nuclear Power Plant for Nuke Power only, and not Uranium Enrichment/Plutonium for Nuclear Bombs, they would have gone with a much safer method...say, like Thorium or Pebble Beds. It's not like they don't have the money with oil at all time highs.

These countries that are not yet in the grasp of the far reaching Western Imperium, most of which are Oil producing, should be using the opportunity to develop and lead the way in a sustainable energy future. Venezuela and Iran are two such examples, and yet I see no such effort. As someone deeply concerned about ecology and humankind's effect on it, I find it difficult to lend my support to factions that call themselves "progressive," yet have no ecological plan. That doesn't mean I support the plan of the West, either, and it doesn't mean I don't acknowledge that the West is by far the biggest polluters on the face of the earth, with China closing in fast, but that only further supports my case that it is a perfect opportunity for those opposed to the West's extortion to juxtapose themselves in every way....and that includes ecologically.

Posted by: Morocco Bama | Mar 28 2011 11:19 utc | 21

17 & 18 : Arigato!

Posted by: Ben | Mar 28 2011 13:35 utc | 22

If Japan does not get control of this, and I don't believe they can at this point, then an invasion has to be considered if they will not acquiesce voluntarily to outside intervention. This could get very messy with even more dire results than ever imagined from the outset.

Posted by: Morocco Bama | Mar 28 2011 15:38 utc | 23

Somehow -- maybe in a defensive reflex against the grinding horror of the situation -- I keep seeing the sequence from the original Fantasia, set to The Sorcerer's Apprentice: Mickey Mouse struggling incompetently with the ever-escalating consequences of his own hubristic attempt to become a great sorcerer.

Trenches full of radioactive water, filling up, and nowhere to put it? Hot potato, with no extra hands to juggle it? Densely populated urban area just a few tens of k away? major radiation spill into the coastal waters of a nation heavily dependent on seafood? irradiation of a large-ish radius of farm land in a nation very short of same?

I agree more and more with those who have concluded that this is a very stupid way to boil water.

Posted by: DeAnander | Mar 28 2011 15:52 utc | 24

Nuclear technology, be it for producing electricity or bombs, is complex and very rigid.

Once the plans are made, they have to be carried out; once the controls are set up, they have to proceed in that and that way.

For usual functioning, there is no leeway, no deviation possible.

Humans who work in the plants are advised of this (at least in CH where schoolchildren visit nuke plants, similar in France I believe) - it takes, they are told, a particular personality, someone who is OK with top-down commands and wants to fit into a structure. Read military, Tayloristic type.

The Tchernobyl horror was caused by visitors from Moscow (afaik) who were strangers to the structure and had the hubris to instigate or encourage and then either organize or force the locals participate in ‘tests’ - the human element spun out of control.

At the DeepWater Horizon spill, it is possible something similar took place.

Once things go wrong there are no obvious fixes, no easy fixes, or not fixes at all, as the control system, geared to normal functioning, breaks down to chaos, no programmed response exist, in the books or in the mind. Or rather those that exist are very local, dealing with only one, often minuscule part of the system.

No emergency plans for 100s, literally, of contingencies are set up, it is too difficult and esoteric, as the usual control and checking is already extremely cumbersome, fraught with quarrels, time-taking, and expensive. It shatters in the face of any abnormal, unpredicted, emergency. Ppl do what they can, but are left powerless, at sea, the command structure is broken, so it is just mucking about.

The rigid, strict, protocols required, carried out by an army of workers, trained and conscientious, to do their one bit, cannot allow anyone to act alone or find creative solutions or whatever - that is the way the plant was set up.

Posted by: Noirette | Mar 28 2011 16:37 utc | 25

Robots designed to deal with nuclear accidents await duty in Europe while Japan asks: Where are ours?Only France and Germany have radiation hardened robots in stand by for a nuclear accident. Both offered the robots and their operation/service crews to Japan nearly two weeks ago.

I do not understand why the Japanese do not take up the offer. The current situation is exactly what those were made for. Measuring radioactivity, taking probes and handling equipment from small to heavy in high radiated and damaged areas.

Posted by: b | Mar 28 2011 17:40 utc | 26

"It shatters in the face of any abnormal, unpredicted, emergency. "

The very definition of fragile, non-robust, lacking in resilience.

The very opposite of the characteristics of successful, adaptive life forms and ecosystems...

Posted by: DeAnander | Mar 28 2011 23:43 utc | 27

b,
I see you left a comment there on the Washington Post article you linked to regarding why Japan is not using these German Robots. If you or anyone else comes up with an answer, please let us know. This is ridiculous and criminal.

Posted by: Rick | Mar 29 2011 0:49 utc | 28

Foreign helpers were turned away - literally, at New Orleans, Katrina. There is a long list, which I don’t remember right now, from Cuba (docs) to France...

Europeans and others interpreted that as US nationalist pride and hubris. Or had more ugly explanations.

For Tchernobyl, there were no immediate offers (middle 80s, the USSR, etc.) partly because of the secrecy. Time did not bring much improvement:

During the first four years after the Chernobyl accident the Soviet authorities decided to largely deal with the consequences of the explosion at a national level. Without Soviet support, the United Nations and its partners sought ways to provide emergency support, which included assessing the nuclear safety and environmental conditions of the contaminated area, and diagnose the various medical conditions that resulted from the accident. The UN also focused on raising the awareness of the area’s inhabitants, teaching them how to protect themselves from radionuclides found in the environment and agricultural products.

Many count the year 1990 as a crucial point in the United Nations involvement in the Chernobyl recovery. ...

http://www.un.org/ha/chernobyl/history.html

Three Mile Island remained a US affair. (afaik.)

The system in place finds it impossible to accept help or interference as they might call it, again, partly because of rigidity - foreign, outsider, gung-ho measures are not welcome, they are not seen or imagined as contributing to the ongoing efforts, organization, only as intstrusive, disruptive.

I agree with b though that the offered robots are a bit of a special case, a) because of the dire situation, b) they could be used or not, in any case to be fitted into some strategy.

wiki has a list of nuclear plant accidents.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_civilian_nuclear_accidents

Posted by: Noirette | Mar 29 2011 14:43 utc | 29

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